Le Crise in Honduras

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

Verso le fin de junio, le armea Honduran arrestava le presidente del pais, Manuel Zelaya, e le inviava a Costa Rica. Su exilio provocava resistentia universal contra le governamento de facto de Honduras, le qual ha resistite fortemente iste pression international.

Zelaya retornava furtivemente al pais, e ille nunc es un hospite del ambassada brasilian in Tegucigalpa. Ecce un questionario sur lo que causava iste crise e le possibilitates de resolver lo:

Como comenciava le Crise?

Verso le fin de junio, inter 200 e 300 soldatos arrivava al casa de Zelaya e, secundo ille, le diceva que ille debeva render se o que ille esserea fusilate. Ille tunc esseva inviate in un avion a Costa Rica. Plus tarde le mesme die, Roberto Micheletti deveniva le presidente del pais.

Que provocava le destitution de Zelaya?

Zelaya voleva submitter al electorato del pais un referendum de consultation sur possibile cambios in le constitution del pais. Si le electorato de Honduras acceptava su proposition, probabilemente ille haberea presentate al publico un secunde referendum durante le proxime election presidential in novembre pro establir un mechanismo pro cambiar le constitution.

Le criticos de Zelaya diceva que lo que ille vermente voleva esseva continuar como le presidente del pais–lo que esserea illegal secundo le leges establite per le constitution actual del pais.

Zelaya negava que ille voleva ganiar le presidential de novo in iste election. Alicun analystas politic ha dicite que il es pauco probabile que un assemblea constituente haberea potite producer un nove constitution ante le anno 2010, quando un nove presidente esserea elegite.

Le tribunal supreme de Honduras diceva que le establimento de un tal assemblea constituente esseva illegal, e le armea del pais appoiava iste decision legal.

Esseva un surprisa le destitution de Zelaya?

Usque un certe puncto, il vermente esseva un surprise, ben que colpos de stato esseva assatis frequente in le America Central durante le major parte del seculo vinti, e usque le medie parte del decada inter 1880 e 1890, le fortias militar dominava le vita politic de Honduras.

Le tension politic habeva augmentate in Honduras durante le menses previe. Zelaya dimitteva le chef del fortias armate, qui negava a ille appoio logistic pro le election del 28 de junio. Le tribunal surpreme de Honduras decideva que iste action esseva illegal.

Quando Zelaya insisteva que su referendum esserea presentate al publico, le congresso del pais passava un resolution pro dimitter le del presidentia pro lo que illo characterisava como “multiple violationes del constitution e le leges de Honduras”, e le tribuna supreme mandava su destitution del presidentia pro “proteger le constitution e le leges del pais”.

Ma pro que esseva tan difficile le relationes inter le presidente e le brancas legislative e judicial del pais?

Honduras es un pais povre characterisate per multe corruption con un parve numero de ricos e grandissime numerous de povres. In despecto de iste circumstantia, le pais habeva essite stabile politicamente desde le annos 1980.

Ma Zelaya, cuje presidentia comenciava in 2006, habeva movite le politica del pais verso le leve, con le appoio de Hugo Chávez de Venezuela e le presidente de Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega.

Iste movimento verso le leve de Zelaya espaventava le ricos del pais. Zelaya tamen insisteva que su referendum solmente haberea essite un sondage sin fortia legal.

Qual esseva le reaction in Honduras al destitution de Zelaya?

Post su destitution, il ha habite demonstrations e pro ille e contra ille.

Le 5 de Julio, Zelaya essayava a retornar a Honduras, ma su avion non poteva atterar al aeroporto proque le armea habeva ponite camiones in le pista de atterage.

Le 25 de Julio Zelaya brevemente entrava a in Honduras de Nicaragua, ubi ille viveva in exilio. Ma le autoritates de su pais rapidemente le obligava a retornar a Nicaragua.

Duo menses plus tarde ille retornava secretemente a Tegucigalpa le die 21 de septembre como hospite del ambassada brasilian. Ille diceva que ille habeva retornate “pro le restabilimento del democratia in le pais”.

Qual esseva le reaction international al destitution de Zelaya?

Le condemnation international de su destitution esseva rapidissime e quasi universal. Le Organisation de Statos American exigeva le restauration immediate de Zelaya al presidentia.

Un numero de paises del America latin, includente Bolivia, Ecuador, e Venezuela, removeva lor ambassatores del pais. Omne le paises del Union Europee anque removeva lor diplomatas.

Le Banca Mundial suspendeva su adjuta economic al pais.

Qual esseva le reaction in Washington?

Le reaction del Statos Unite es de un importantia special, proque le major parte del relationes commercial de Honduras es con le Statos Unite.

Le administration de Obama affirma que Zelaya es le presidente legitime de Honduras ma insiste que on debe resolver le crise de un maniera pacific con dialogo inter Zelaya e su opponentes.

In Septembre, le Statos Unite suspendeva omne su adjuta al pais, con le exception de adjuta humanitari, dicente que le governamento de Honduras habeva monstrate un manco de respecto pro processos democratic basic.

Ma le ambassador del Statos Unite al Organisation de Statos American, Lewis Anselem, diceva que le presentia de Zelaya in le ambassada brasilian in Tegucigalpa esseva “imprudente e irresponsabile”.

Como se pote resolver iste crise?

In tres reuniones con Zelaya e le governamento de facto de Honduras, le presidente de Costa Rica, Oscar Arias, presentava un plano detaliate pro resolver le crise. Secundo lo que proponeva Arias, Zelaya esserea restaurate al presidentia e un governamento de reconciliation national esserea establite. Il anque haberea un amnistia general pro crimines politic que occurreva durante le crise. Ma le governamento de facto de Honduras insisteva que le restauration de Zelaya al presidentia del pais esseva impossibile.

Le retorno de Zelaya a Honduras como hospite in le ambassada del Brasil exacerbava le tensiones politic in le pais post que Zelaya apertemente incoragiava le gente que le appoiava a rebellar se contra le governamento de facto del pais, provocante le suspension de libertates civil pro le population de Honduras.

Le pression international ha causate le relaxation del actiones repressive del governamento de facto, Non obstante, le honduranos non es completemente libere a protestar publicamente contra le governamento, ma le presentia de Zelaya in Tegucigalpa e le nove electiones presidential que habera loco le 29 de novembre ha causate reactiones significante inter le functionarios del governamento que le expelleva del pais.

Diplomates regional arrivava in Honduras le 7 de octobre pro essayar a comenciar nove negotiationes, e il ha pression extreme sur le governamento de Michelletti, que vole que le electiones de novembre sia acceptate como legitime per le communitate international, que insiste que Zelaya sia restituite al presidentia del pais ante iste electiones, e on sta a cercar un formula pro restaurar Zelaya al presidentia, forsan con poteres limitate de alicun maniera.

The Crisis in Honduras

Toward the end of June, the Honduran army arrested the president of the country, Manuel Zelaya, and packed him off to Costa Rica. His exile provoked universal resistance against the de-facto government of Honduras, which has strongly resisted this international pressure.

Zelaya furtively returned to the country, and he is now a guest of the Brazilian embassy in Tegucigalpa. Here is a questionnaire about what caused this crisis and the possibility of solving it:

How did the crisis begin?

Toward the end of June, between 200 and 300 soldiers arrived at Zelaya’s house and, according to him, told him that he would have to surrender or be shot. He then was sent away in a plane to Costa Rica. Later on that same day, Roberto Micheletti became the president of the country.

What provoked the removal of Zelaya?

Zelaya wanted to submit to the electorate of the country a consultation referendum about possible changes in the constitution of the country. If the electorate of Honduras accepted his proposal, probably he would have presented to the public a second referendum during the next presidential election in November to establish a mechanism for changing the constitution.

The critics of Zelaya said that what he really wanted was to continue as the president of the country–which would be illegal according to the laws established by the current constitution of the country.

Zelaya denied that he wanted to regain the presidency in this election. Some political analysts have said that it is very unlikely that a constituent assembly would have been able to produce a new constitution before the year 2010, when a new president would be elected.

The supreme court of Honduras said that the establishment of such a constitutent assembly was illegal, and the army of the country supported this legal decision.

Was Zelaya’s removal a surprise?

Up to a certain point, it was really a surprise, though coups d’etat were rather frequent in Central America during most of the twentieth century, and up to the middle part of the decade between 1880 and 1890, the military forces dominated the political life of Honduras.

The political tension had increased in Honduras during the previous months. Zelaya fired the chief of the armed forces, who denied him logistic support for the election on June 28th. The supreme court of Honduras decided that this action was illegal.

When Zelaya insisted that his referendum would be presented to the public, the congress of the country passed a resolution to remove him from the presidency for what it characterized as “multiple violations of the constitution and the laws of Honduras,” and the supreme court ordered his removal from the presidency to “protect the constitution and the laws of the country.”

But why were the relations between the president and the legislative and judicial branches of the country so difficult?

Honduras is a poor country characterized by a lot of corruption with a small number of rich people and very large numbers of poor ones. In spite of this circumstance, the country had been politically stable since the 1980s.

But Zelaya, whose presidency began in 2006, had moved the politics of the country toward the left, with the support of Hugo Chavez of Venezuela and the president of Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega.

Zelaya’s movement toward the left horrified the rich of the country. Zelaya, however, insisted that his referendum would only have been a poll without legal effect.

What was the reaction in Honduras to Zelaya’s removal?

After his removal, there have been demonstrations for and against him.

On July 5, Zelaya tried to return to Honduras, but his plane could not land at the airport because the army had placed trucks on the runway.

On July 25, Zelaya briefly entered Honduras from Nicaragua, where he was living in exile. But the authorities of his country rapidly obliged him to return to Nicaragua.

Two months later he returned secretly to Tegucigalpa on September 21 as a guest of the Brazilian embassy. He said that he had returned “for the re-establishment of democracy in the country.”

What was the international reaction to Zelaya’s removal?

International condemnation of his removal was very rapid and almost universal. The Organization of American States demanded the immediate restoration of Zelaya to the presidency.

A number of Latin American countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, removed their ambassadors from Tegucigalpa. All the countries of the European Union also removed their diplomats.

The World Bank suspended its economic assistance to the country.

What was the reaction in Washington?

The reaction of the United States is of special importance because most of the commercial relations of Honduras are with the United States.

The Obama administration says that Zelaya is the legitimate president of Honduras but insists that the crisis should be resolved in a peaceful manner with dialogue between Zelaya and his opponents.

In September, the United States suspended all its assistance to the country, with the exception of humanitarian aid, saying that the government of Honduras had shown a lack of respect for basic democratic processes.

But the ambassador of the United States to the Organization of American States, Lewis Anselm, said that Zelaya’s presence in the Brazilian embassy in Tegucigalpa was “imprudent and irresponsible.”

How can this crisis be resolved?

In three meetings with Zelaya and the de-facto government of Honduras, the president of Costa Rica, Oscar Arias, presented a detailed plan for resolving the crisis. According to what Arias proposed, Zelaya would be restored to the presidency and a government of national reconciliation would be established. There would also be a general amnesty for political crimes that occurred during the crisis. But the de-facto government of Honduras insisted that the restoration of Zelaya to the presidency of the country was impossible.

The return of Zelaya to Honduras as a guest in the Brazilian embassy exacerbated the political tensions in the country after Zelaya openly encouraged the people supporting him to rebel against the de-facto government of the country, provoking the suspension of civil liberties for the population of Honduras.

International pressure has caused the relaxation of the repressive actions of the de-facto government. Nevertheless, Hondurans are not completely free to publicly protest against the government, but Zelaya’s presence in Tegucigalpa and the new presidential elections that will take place November 29th have caused significant reactions among officials in the government that expelled him from the country.

Regional diplomats arrived in Honduras on October 7th to try to begin new negotiations, and there is extreme pressure on Michelletti’s government, which wants the November elections to be accepted as legitimate by the international community, which insists that Zelaya be restored to the presidency of the country before these elections, and people are trying to look for a new formula to restore Zelaya to the presidency, perhaps with his powers limited in some way.

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