Feminas in le scientias

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

Desde le antiquitate, le feminas del mundo ha facite discoperimentos scientific. Plus recentemente scientistas feminin ha disveloppate drogas pro tractar maladias como cancer, diabetes, e malaria. Scientistas e technologos feminin ha facite discoperimentos importante sur le corpore human, e illas ha meliorate le efficacitate de lor paises in le technicas del guerra.

Dece e duo feminas ha ganiate le Premio Nobel in le scientias. Alicun scientistas feminin nunquam se maritava. Alicunes travalia con lor maritos. Alteres elevava grande familias. Ma pro feminas, il ha essite difficile esser scientistas succedite.

In le prime parte del seculo dece e nove in Anglaterra, Mary Anning deveniva un del prime feminas recognoscite pro su discoperimentos sur le historia ancian del Terra. Mary e su patre colligeva fossiles in lor village apud le costas meridional de Anglaterra; e quando illa habeva solmente dece e duo annos, illa deveniva le prime persona qui trovava skeletos quasi complete de plure animales fossilisate. Illa nunquam deveniva famose a causa de su discoperimentos proque illa sovente vendeva su fossiles pro ganiar moneta pro appoiar su familia economicamente.

In 1891, un juvene femina polonese, Marie Sklodowska, voleva studiar le physica. Illa viagiava a Paris, Francia, pro su studios proque illa non poteva matricular se in le universitates de Polonia. Illa comenciava a travaliar in le laboratorio de un homine con le nomine de Pierre Curie, con le qual illa eventualmente se maritava.

Marie e Pierre faceva multe discoperimentos conjunctemente e recipeva le Premio Nobel pro le physica in 1903 con un altere scientista. Marie Curie deveniva le prime persona qui recipeva un secunde Premio Nobel in 1911 pro su travalio in le chemia. Illa esseva un del pauc numero de feminas de su epocha qui deveniva famose como scientista.

In 1906 un juvene puera, Marie Goeppert, nasceva in Germania. Illa esseva inspirate a studiar le scientia per su patre. Plus tarde illa se maritava con un scientista american, e Joseph Mayer e Marie Goeppert vadeva al Statos Unite in 1930. Le senior Mayer deveniva un professor al Universitate Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, Maryland.

Maria travaliava sin salario como voluntario. Plus tarde illa deveniva un professor de physica al Universitate de Chicago in Illinois. In 1963, illa ganiava le Premio Nobel in physica con duo altere scientistas.

Durante le Secunde Guerra Mundial, multe feminas american travaliava in fabricas. Lor inventiones meliorava aviones militar, reservoirs de combustible, e cameras pro usos militar. Ma post le guerra, on expectava que illas remaneva in lor focares pro elevar lor filios durante que lor maritos travaliava in fabricas e laboratorios. Sovente on diceva al feminas que continuava a travaliar como scientistas que il non non esseva natural que mulieres travaliava foras de lor casas.

Mesmo hodie, multe expertos dice que on non tracta scientistas feminin de un maniera juste. Illas non recipe tante patentes pro lor inventiones como le homines. Usque le medio del seculo dece e nove, ulle invention de un mulier esseva le proprietate de su marito secundo le lege. Ma mesmo in 2002, minus que 11% del patentes esseva premiate a mulieres in le Statos Unite.

Plure organisationes in le Statos Unite adjuva feminas in le scientias. Le compania L’Oreal e le agentia del Nationes Unite UNESCO honora scientistas feminin in omne le partes del mundo. Desde 1998, 52 scientistas feminin de 26 paises ha essite recognoscite pro lor travalio.

Le professor Tebello Nyokong del regno de Lesotho, le recipiente de un del premios de L’Oreal, ha travaliate pro disveloppar nove drogas pro luctar contra cancer. Quando illa esseva juvene, le professor Nyokong dice que illa vadava al schola alicun dies e elevava oves le altere dies. Illa faceva travalios generalmente assignate a pueros.

Illa diceva que facer iste travlio la adjuvava a explorar durante que illa deveniva plus vetule. Su plus grande problema, illa diceva, esseva sentir se multo solitari como un femina in le scientias. Le professor Nyokong dice que su proprie solitude la ha incoragiate a appoiar feminas juvene in le scientias de maniera que illas non deberea tolerar simile solitude.

Multe feminas con carieras in le scientias ha debite trovar manieras de esser bon matres e scientistas simultaneemente. Christiane Nusslein-Volhard de Germania divideva un Premio Nobel pro physiologia in 1995. Illa gere le Instituto Max Planck pro le biologia disveloppmental in Tubigen, Germania. Le doctor Nusslein-Volhard dice que le feminas in Germania sovente cessa lor travalio como scientistas quando illas comencia a elevar infantes. Assi, illa inaugurava un organisation que da moneta a juvene scientistas feminin qui ha besonio de adjuta economic pro lor labores domestic.

Le doctor Nusslein-Volhard ha dicite que illa spera que le vita devenira plus facile pro scientistas feminin in Germania durante que Angela Merkel es le prime ministro del pais. Merkel ha un doctorato in le physica.

Multe programmas in le Statos Unite appoia pueras qui vole devenir scientistas. Girls Go Tech [girlsgotech.org] es un sito in le Rete inaugurate per le Girl Scouts of America. Le pueras qui comprende le anglese anque pote ascoltar programmas sur le feminas in le scientia a un sito con le nomine [womeninscience.org].

From ancient times the women of the world have been making scientific discoveries. More recently, women scientists have developed drugs to treat diseases like cancer, diabetes and malaria. Women scientists and technologists have made important discoveries about the human body and improved their countries’ effectiveness in the techniques of warfare.

Twelve women have won the Nobel Prize in science. Some female scientists never married. Some worked with their husbands. Others raised large families. But it has been difficult for women to be successful scientists.

In the first part of the nineteenth century in England, Mary Anning became one of the first women recognized for her discoveries about the ancient history of the Earth. Mary and her father collected fossils in their village on the southern coast of England; and when she was only twelve years old, she became the first person to find almost complete skeletons of several fossilized animals. She never became famous for her discoveries because she often sold her fossils to get money to support her family.

In 1891, a young Polish woman, Marie Sklodowska, wanted to study physics. She traveled to Paris, France, for her studies because she could not get a college education in Poland. She began working in the laboratory of a man named Pierre Curie, who she eventually married.

Marie and Pierre made many discoveries together and received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 along with another scientist. Marie Curie became the first person to be awarded a second Nobel Prize in 1911 for her work in chemistry. She was one of the few women of her era who became famous as a scientist.

In 1906, a little girl, Maria Goeppert, was born in Germany. She was inspired to study science by her father. Later on, she married an American scientist, and Joseph Mayer and Maria Goeppert went to the United States in 1930. Mr. Mayer became a professor at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

Maria worked without pay as a volunteer. Later she became a professor of physics at the University of Chicago in Illinois. In 1963, she won the Nobel Prize in physics along with two other scientists.

During World War Two, many American women worked in factories. Their inventions improved military planes, fuel tanks, and cameras for military uses. But after the war, they were expected to stay at home and raise their children while their husbands went back to work in factories and laboratories. Women who continued to work as scientists were often told it was not natural for women to work outside the home.

Even today, many experts say women scientists often are not treated fairly. They don’t receive as many patents for their inventions as men do. Until the middle of the nineteenth century, anything a woman invented belonged to her husband under the law. But even in 2002, fewer than eleven percent of patents were awarded to women in the United States.

Several organizations in the United States are helping women in science. The L’Oreal company and the United Nations agency UNESCO honor women scientists around the world. Since 1998, fifty-two women scientists from twenty-six countries have been recognized for their work.

Professor Tebello Nyokong of the kingdom of Lesotho, the recipient of one of L’Oreal’s awards, has worked to develop new drugs to fight against cancer. When she was young, Professor Nyokong says she went to school on some days and took care of sheep on other days. She generally did the work traditionally assigned to boys.

She said that doing this worked helped her to learn to explore as she grew older. Her biggest problem, she said, was feeling very alone as a woman in science. Professor Nyokong says that her own loneliness has encouraged her to support young women in science so they do not have put up with similar loneliness.

Many women with careers in science have had to find ways to be good mothers and scientists at the same time. Christiane Nusslein-Volhard of Germany shared the Nobel Price for physiology in nineteen ninety-five. She directs the Max Planck Institute of Developmental Biology in Tubingen, Germany. Doctor Nusslein-Volhard says women in Germany often stop working as scientists when they have children. So she started an organization that gives money to young women scientists who need economic help for their work at home.

Doctor Nusslein-Volhard has said she hopes life will become easier for women scientists in Germany while Angela Merkel is the chancellor. Merkel has a doctorate degree in physics.

Many programs in the United States support girls who want to become scientists. Girls Go Tech [girlsgotech.org] is a Web site started by the Girl Scouts of America. Girls who understand English can also listen to programs about women in science at a Web site called [womeninscience.org].

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