Le crescente influentia de latinos in le Statos Unite

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

In Utah Tony Yapias, le director del “Proyecto Latino de Utah” e un importante activista hispanic in ille stato, ha notate con confidentia que Utah esseva un parte de Mexico. “In 1847”, ille diceva, “quando le pioneros mormon arrivava a iste territorio, nemo exigeva de illes lor papiros de immigration”.

Ma hodie on a vices exige documentos probante residential legal del mexicanos e chicanos (citatanos american de origine Mexican), tanto como altere latinos como ille, cuje pais native es le Perú. E le americanos qui exige iste papiros generalmente es “anglos”, le nomine date a americanos cuje ancestres veniva del partes central, oriental, e septentrional de Europa.

Iste tendentia es specialmente notabile in Arizona, ubi le legislatura del stato e su governator approvava un lege (SB1070), cuje objecto es usar le policia del stato pro identificar immigrantes illegal con methodos considerate inconstitutional per multes. (Usque nunc, iste lege non se ha ponite in vigor proque un judice federal del Statos Unite lo suspendeva de maniera que le tribunales federal american pote evaluar su constitutionalitate.)

Yapias es un symbolo del complicate rolo de latinos in le Statos Unite. Illes, lor cultura, e lor lingua esseva multo prominente in le historia del Americas. Ma pro plus que un seculo, durante que le anglos ha dominate le societate american, illes ha essite marginalisate.

Nunc le latinos ha un rolo crescente in le futuro del Statos Unite. In 2009, il habeva 48,4 milliones de hispanicos in le pais–quasi 16% del population. In le anno 2050, secundo projectiones del Pew Research Center, le hispanicos del Statos Unite formara 29% del societate american e le euroamericanos essera un minoritate a 47%. Multo plus tosto, in le citates e le scholas del pais, le euroamericanos devenira un population minoritari.

A causa del influentia mutue que Mexico e le Statos Unite ha habite inter se trans lor historia, tanto como le frontiera commun inter Mexico e le Statos Unite, le hispanicos, como un minoritate, es significantemente plus differente in lor historia que le irlandeses o italianos del passato. De un parte, multe latinos non es solmente citatanos ma ha radices plus profunde in le Statos Unite que illos del euroamericanos.

Leticia Van de Putte, un senator in le legislatura de Texas de San Antonio con parentes in Mexico, nota que “nostre familia esseva in Texas quando illo formava parte de Espania, Francia, Mexico, le Republica de Texas, e le Statos Unite. Nostre familia sempre ha essite in le mesme loco. Solmente le governamentos del territorio continuava a cambiar”.

Ma multe latinos se trova in le Statos Unite illegalmente. Durante le anno passate, unes 80% del 11,1 milliones de immigrantes illegal American veni del America latin, secundo le Pew Research Center, e 60% de illes vive un vita marginalisate in le Statos Unite. Illes es exploitate economicamente per le population anglo e sovente suffre de discrimination raciste.

Illes time personas como Joe Arpaio, le sheriff del contato Maricopa de Arizona, que include Phoenix. Arpaio regularmente arresta e incarcera immigrantes in prisiones formate de tentas in le desertos calide del stato.

Le Departamento de Justitia del governamento federal statounitese ha processate Arpaio legalmente pro su resistentia al investigationes federal que essaya a discoperir si ille observa le derectos constitutional de su prisioneros hispanic. Ma Arpaio fortemente resista iste investigationes federal. “Io vole que illes sape”, ille diceva in un interview con ‘The Economist’ que le temperatura in ille tentas es 54 grados Celsius.”

Le thema de immigration illegal domina le politica de latinos in le Statos Unite, sia illes qui nasceva in le Statos Unite e es citatanos del pais, sia illes qui es immigrantes, sia legal, sia illegal.

“Omne nos es de origine mixte”, dice Antonio González, le presidente del “South-West Voter Registration Education Project” (le Projecto in le Sudwest del Statos Unite pro Encoragiar potential Votantes Legal a Registrar se). Su proprie familia, pro exemplo, esseva in lo que nunc es le Statos Unite ante le invasion del anglos in Arizona. Ma su marita es un immigrante legal recente, e ille ha amicos qui es immigrantes illegal.

A causa de iste circumstantia, a multe latinos non place le Partito Republican, que, secundo illes, es raciste e hostil al problemas del latinos. Assi illes generalmente appoia le Democratas, le altere partito grande del systema bipartisan del Statos Unite.

Ma Julian Castro, le democrata latino juvene e le burgomaestro de San Antonio, cuje population es 60% hispanic, insiste que a multe hispanicos non place le Democratas, specialmente lor factiones liberal. Le hispanicos appoia melioramentos in le education public e in le systema de sanitate, ma illes anque es religiose e socialmente conservative. E illes pote acceptar republicanos como George Bush quando ille esseva le governator de Texas e appoiava le immigrantes del stato.

Quanto al potential politic del latinos, le futuro jam ha arrivate in statos como Texas e California, que ha grande populationes e de latinos qui es citatanos e de immigrantes latino illegal. Ben que illes totevia es un minoritate in le electiones de iste statos, lor numeros sta a crescer rapidemente, e lor influentia sur le politica de iste statos se augmenta con le crescimento de lor numeros. Le vice-governator de California es un latino, e anque es latinos le burgomaestros de multe citates californian, includente Los Angeles.

In altere partes del Statos Unite, le poter politic del latinos non es tan forte como in Texas e California, ma illo cresce lente- ma constantemente in statos como Arizona, Georgia, e North Carolina. In 2009, omne iste statos habeva 10% del population collective del immigrantes illegal. In 1990, iste statos habeva solmente 4% del total. Un periodo de tempore assatis longe essera necesse ante que iste numeros se transforma in potentia politic in iste statos.

Le population de latinos in Arizona tamen se ha triplate in le ultime duo decadas, e le majoritate de euroamericanos in ille stato se ha reducite de 72% a 57%, e ante multe tempore le latinos de ille stato essera tan potente politicamente como illes in California.

Arturo Rodriguez, le presidente del United Farm Workers Union (Sindicato Unite de Travaliatores Agricultural), un organisation fortemente hispanic que esseva fundate per Cesar Chavez, le Martin Luther King del chicanos, recognosce que le latinos probabilemente sta a cambiar le Statos Unite de un maniera plus visible que le italianos, le irlandeses, le chineses, o le germanos. E isto, ille diceva, provocara un sentito de anxietate inter alicun anglos.

Ille adde tamen que le movimento politic contra le hispanos del Statos Unite, sovente inspirate per le racismo, eventualmente essera conquerite. “Le anglos perdera iste lucta”, ille diceva, “proque le population afroamerican ha ganiate multe battalias contra le racismo pro complir lor derectos civil e human. E nos, le latinos, nunc es plus numerose que le afroamericanos!”

The Growing Influence of Latinos in the Untied States

In Utah Tony Yapis, the director of the “Projecto Latino de Utah” and an important Hispanic activist in that state, has confidently noted that Utah used to be a part of Mexico. “In 1847,” he said, “when the Mormon pioneers arrived in this territory, nobody asked them for their immigration papers.”

But today documents proving legal residence are often demanded of Mexicans and Chicanos (American citizens of Mexican origin), as well as other Latinos like him, whose native country is Peru. And the Americans who demand these papers are often “anglos,” the name given to Americans whose ancesters came from from the central, eastern, and northern parts of Europe.

This tendency is especially notable in Arizona, where the legislature of the state and its governer approved a law (SB1070), whose object is to use the state’s police to identify illegal immigrants with methods considered unconstitutional by many people. (Up to now, this law has not been enforced because a U.S. federal judge suspended it so that U.S. Federal courts can evalutate its constitutionality.)

Yapias is a symbol of the complicated role of Latinos in the United States. They, their culture, and their language were very prominent in the history of the Americas. But for more than a century, while anglos have dominated American society, they have been marginalized.

Now Latinos have a growing role in the future of the United States. In 2009, there were 48.4 million Hispanics in the country–almost 16% of the population. In 2050, according to projections of the Pew Research Center, the Hispanics of the United States will form 29% of American society and Euroamericans will be a minority at 47%. Much earlier than that, in the cities and schools of the country, Euroamericans will be be a minority population.

Because of the mutual influence that Mexico and the United States have had on each other throughout their history, as well as the common border between Mexico and the United States, Hispanics, as a minority, are significantly more different in their history than the Irish or Italians of the past. On the one hand, many Latinos are not only citizens but have deeper roots in the United States than those of Euroamericans.

Letitia Van de Putte, a senator in the Texas legislature from San Antonio with relatives in Mexico, notes that “our families were in Texas when it was part of Spain, France, Mexico, The Republic of Texas, and the United States. Our familas have always been in the same place. Only the governments of the territory continued to change.”

But many Latinos are in the United States illegally. In the past year, about 80% of the 11.1 million illegal American immigrants come from Latin America, according to the Pew Research Center, and 60% of them live a marginalized life in the United States. They are economically exploited by the Anglo population and often suffer from racist discrimination.

They fear people like Joe Arpaio, the sheriff of Maricopa County, which includes Phoenix. Arpaio regularly arrests and incarcerates immigrants in jails made up of tents in the hot deserts of the state.

The Department of Justice of the American federal government has sued Arpaio for his resistance to the federal investigations that are trying to discover if he is observant of the constitutional rights of his Hispanic prisoners. But Arpaio strongly resists these federal investigations. “I want them to know,” he said in an interview with ‘The Economist,’ that the temperature in those tents is 130 degrees.”

The subject of illegal immigration dominates Latino politics in the United States, whether they were born in the United States and are citizens of the country or whether they are legal or illegal immigrants.

“All of us are of mixed origin,” says Antonio Gonzalez, the president of the South-West Voter Registration Education Project. His own family, for example, was in what is now the United States before the Anglo invasion in Arizona. But his wife is a recent legal immigrant, and he has friends who are illegal immigrants.

Because of this circumstance, many Latinos do not like the Republican Party, which, according to them, is racist and hostile to the problems of Latinos. They thus generally support the Democrats, the other large party in the bipartisan system of the United States.

But Julian Castro, the young Latino Democrat and the mayor of San Antonio, whose population is 60% Hispanic, insists that many Hispanics do not like the Democrats, especially their liberal factions. Hispanics support improvements in public education and in the health-care system, but they also are religious and socially conservative. And they can accept Republicans like George Bush when he was the governor of Texas and supported the immigrants of the state.

In other parts of the United States the Latino political power is not as strong as in Texas and California, but it is growing slowly but constantly in states like Arizona, Georgia, and North Carolina. In 2009, all these states had 10% of the collective population of illegal immigrants. In 1990 these states had only 5% of the total. A rather long period of time will be necessary before these numbers are transformed into political power in these states.

The population of Latinos in Arizona, however, has tripled in the last two decades, and the majority of Euroamericans in that state has been reduced from 72% to 57%, and before long the Latinos of that state will be as strong politically as the ones in California.

Arturo Rodriguez, the president of the United Farm Workers, a strongly Hispanic organization that was founded by Cesar Chavez, the Martin Luther King of the Chicanos, recognizes that Latinos probably are changing the United States in a more visible way than the Italians, the Irish, the Chinese, or the Germans. And this, he said, will provoke a sense of anxiety among some Anglos.

He adds, however, that the political movement against the Hispanics of the United States, often inspired by racism, eventually will be conquered. “The Anglos will lose this fight,” he said, “because the Afro American population has won a lot of battles against racism to achieve their civil and human rights. And we Latinos are now more numerous than the African Americans!”

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