Le francese e le anglese in harmonia e conflicto in Francia

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

Pro le major parte de su 178 annos de existentia, le Académie Française ha luctate pro mantener le “puritate” del lingua francese.

In annos recente, isto ha significate que su 40 membros, cognoscite como “le immortales”, ha stato a luctar contra lo que illes considera le influenta perniciose de lo que illes appella “le lingua de Shakespeare”.

Isto significa que le franceses debe rejectar le parolas e phrases in anglese que trans le annos ha devenite de plus in plus obvie in le francese. Le “weekend” debe devenir le “fin de semaine”. Il non ha “cookies” in le computatores francese, solmente “temoins de connections” (testes de connectiones). E si vos scribe un “blog” o discarga un “podcast” o conversa on-line, vos debera scriber “écrire un blog-notes” obtener un ”téléchargement pour baladeur” o “engager un dialogue en ligue”.

Multe franceses ha declarate que le invasion de parolas anglese es un menacia plus serie pro le identitate gallic que le occupation de Francia per le Nazis durante le Secunde Guerra Mundial.

Nunc (quelle horreur!) le ministro de education, Luc Chantel, ha declarate que omne le franceses debe comenciar le studio del anglese al etate de tres annos. Ille dice que ille vole “reinventar le studio del anglese” in le scholas de Francia e que ille ha comenciate un studio pro trovar manieras plus efficace de inseniar linguas estranie in general.

“Hodie in Francia, non cognoscer profundemente le anglese es un impedimento tragic”, ille diceva durante un interview in le television francese. “Nos sape que si on comencia le studio del anglese a tres, quatro, o cinque annos”, ille diceva, “plus tarde le studio de altere linguas devenira de plus in plus facile. Io non vole que nos neglige le altere linguas del Union Europee, ma le anglese ha un prioritate special.”

Iste proposition ha inspirate protestas fortissime del maestros de Francia, qui insista que le prioritate le plus importante es inseniar a lor studentes a parlar e scriber vermente ben le francese.

Le jornalista e analysta politic Eric Zemmour describe le idea de dedicar tante attention al studio del anglese como “un colonisation del spirito francese”. “Pro multe tempore, nos essesva fer de nostre lingua e resisteva tal incursiones”, ille diceva. “General De Gaulle sempre insisteva in parlar solmente le francese, e ille nunquam parlava ni un sol parola del anglese”.

Le linguista Claude Hagege, le autor del libro “Le morte del linguas”, describeva le augmentante importante del anglese como “imperialismo linguistic” e un “menacia”. “Io ha dedicate le major parte de mi vita al lucta contra le domination del anglese”, ille diceva. “Le futuro del humanitate”, ille insista, “se trova in le diversitate, non in le uniformitate”.

Luc Chantel non es le prime functionario del governamento francese qui ha essayate a promover le instruction del anglese in le scholas del pais. Ante duo annos, le presidente Nicolas Sarkozy diceva que ille voleva “un Francia bilingue”, e in 1989 le Ministsro de Education, Lionel Jospin, un socialista, introduceva classes de anglese obligatori pro studentes francese inter 9 e 11 annos de etate. Ille programma, que consiste de duo o tres horas de instruction cata septimana, totevia se conserva.

In 2004 un commission parlimentari francese recommendava, sin successo, que le anglese, in le scholas de Francia, debe esser tan importante como le francese e le mathematica.

Le francese, que pro grande epochas in le historia europee esseva le lingua del diplomatia inter le europeos, se ha cedite al anglese desde que le diplomatas de Svedia, Austria, e Finlandia insiste que illes nunc prefere usar le anglese in conferentias international.

Datos del Commission Europee monstra que in 1997 40% de su documentos se scribeva primo in francese e 45% in anglese. In 2008 tamen solmente 14% de su documentos esseva in francese e 72% in anglese.

In 2006 Jacques Chirac, le presidente de Francia in ille anno, deveniva irate quando un homine de affaires francese dava un discurso ante le un gruppo de functionarios del Union Europee in anglese, e ille rapidemente quitava le camera del conferentia, ben que ille mesme anque cognosceva ben le anglese.

Trans le annos, Francia ha usate legislation pro essayar a obligar le uso del francese con le lege Tubon de 1994, que face obligatori le uso del francese in publicationes official del governemto, in scholas que recipeva moneta del stato, in annuncios public, e in locos de travalio.

Diverse commisiones ministerial sta a laborar pro formular alternativas a expressiones anglo-american in le francese. Le processo ha su difficultates. Lor suggestiones debe esser approbate per le Académie Française e le Délégation Générale à la langue Française et aux langues de France ante esser approbate per le Commission Générale de Terminologie e de Néologie e publicate in le Jornal Official del governamento.

In le ultime 15 annos, le commission de terminologia–un grupo de functionarios del Ministerio de Economia que travalia in le formation de nove parolas scientific, legal, e financiari–ha proponite plus que 1.000 equivalentes in le francese pro expressiones anglese, inter illlos “jeunes pousses” pro “start-up companies” e “accueil doré” pro “golden handshake”.

Su membros non ha arrivate a un accordo pro le expression anglese “golden parachute”. Esque illo debe esser “parachute doré” o “parachute en or”?

Ben que alicunes ex le decisiones del Académie Française ha essite accipite per le population francese, como “curiel” pro “e-mail” e “éblabla” pro “chat”, anglicismos como “weekend”, “post-it”, e “airbags” seque in uso general in despecto del recommendationes de omne iste corpores de savants.

Ma como sape le linguistas academic, cata lingua es le possession de su usatores, e le franceses continua a usar lo que illes trova confortabile in despecto del recommendationes del Académie Française e le diverse Commissiones que essaya a regular le francese parlate.

E quando pro “subprime” illes recommenda “prêt hypothecaire a risqué”, illes sempre cercara le maniera le plus breve de exprimer omne le formulas recommendate per le “savants de la langue”.

French and English in Harmony and Conflict in France

For most of its 178 years of existence, the French Academy has fought to maintain the “purity” of the French language.

In recent years, this has meant that its forty members, known as “the immortals,” have been fighting against what they consider to be the pernicious influence of what they call “The language of Shakespeare.”

This means that the French should reject words and phrases in English that throughout the years have become more and more obvious in French. Le “weekend” should become le “fin de semaine.” There are no “cookies” in French computers, only “temoins de connections” (connection witnesses). And if you write a “blog” or download a “podcast” or hold conversations on-line, you should write “écrire un blog-notes” obtain a “téléchargement pour baladeur” or “engager un dialogue en ligue”. Many of the French have declared that the invasion of English words is a more serious menace to Gallic identity than the occupation of France by the Nazis during the Second World War.

Now (quelle horreur!) the minister of education, Luc Chantel, has declared that all French people should begin the study of English at age three. He says that he wants to “reinvent the study of English” in the schools of France and that he has started a study to find more effective ways of teaching foreign languages in general.

“Today in France, not knowing English really well is a tragic handicap,” he said during an interview on French television. “We know that if a person starts studying English at three, four, or five years of age,” he said, “later on the study of other languages will become easier and easier. I don’t want us to neglect the other languages of the European Union, but English has a special priority.”

This statement has inspsired very strong protests among France’s school teachers, who insist that the most important priority is to teach their students to speak and write French really well.

The journalist and political analyst Eric Zemmour describes the idea of dedicating so much attention to the study of English as “a colonization of the French spirit.” “For a long time we were proud of our language and resisted such incursions,” he said. “General De Gaulle always insisted on speaking only French, and he never spoke even a single word of English.”

The linguist Claude Hagege, the author of the book “The Death of Languages,” describes the growing importance of English as “linguistic imperialism” and a “menace.” “I have dedicated most of my life to the fight against the domination of English,” he said. “The future of humanity,” he insists, “is to be found in diversity, not uniformity.”

Luc Chantel is not the first French-government official who has tried to promote the instruction of English in the schools of the country. Two years ago, President Nicolas Sarkozy said that he wanted “a bilingual France,” and in 1989 the Minister of Education, Lionel Jospin, a socialist, introduced obligatory English classes for French students between nine and eleven years of age. That program, which consists of two or three hours of instruction each week, is still going on.

In 2004 a French parliamentary commission recommended, without success, that English, in the schools of France, should be as important as French and mathematics.

French, which for long periods in European history was the language of diplomacy among Europeans, has now been replaced by English since the diplomats of Sweden, Austria, and Finland insist they now prefer to use English in international conferences.

Data from the European Commission show that in 1997 40% of its documents were written first in French and 45% in English. In 2008, however, only 14%of its documents were in French and 72% in English.

In 2006 Jacques Chirac, the president of France that year, became angry when a French businessman made a speech in English before a group of European Union officials, and he quickly left the conference room, though he himself also knew English well.

Throughout the years, France has used legislation in an attempt to enforce the use of French with the 1994 Tubon law, which obligates the use of French in official government publications, in schools receiving funding from the state, in public advertisements, and in work places.

Several ministerial commissions are working to formulate alternatives to Anglo-American expressions in French. The process has its difficulties. Their suggestions have to be approved by the Academie Française and the Délégation Générale à la langue Française et aux langues de France before being approved by the Commission Générale de Terminologie e de Néologie and published in the Official Journal of the government.

In the last fifteen years, the terminology commission–a group of officials from the Economics Ministry that works on the formation of new scientific, legal, and financial words–has proposed more than 1,000 equivalents in French for English expressions, among them “jeunes pousses” for “start-up companies” and “accueil doré” for “golden handshake.”

Its members have not arrived at an agreement for the English expression “golden parachute.” Should it be “parachute doré´or “parachute en or”?

Though some of the decisions of the French Academy have been accepted by the French population, such as “curiel” for “e-mail” and “éblabla” for “chat,” anglicisms such as “weekend,” “post-it,” and “airbags” continue to be in general use despite the recommendations of all these bodies of savants.

But as academic linguistis know, every language is the possession of its users, and the French continue to use what they find comfortable despite the recommendations of the French Academy and the various commissions that try to regulate spoken French.

And when for “subprime” they recommend “prêt hypothecaire a risqué” they will always look for the the shortest way of expressing all the formulas recommended by the language mavens.

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