John Dewey

(Languages of this post: Interlingua, English)

John Dewey esseva un philosopho, psychologo e pedagogo statounitese. Ille nasceva in le mesme anno in le que Darwin publicava “Le origine del species,” e Marx su critica del capitalismo.

In 1882 ille se translatava a Baltimore e se matriculava in le Universitate Johns Hopkins. Le ambiente hegelian del universitate habeva un forte influentia sur ille que se reflecte in tres characteristicas que le influeva potentissimemente: un gusto per le schematisation logic, un interesse per questiones social e psychologic, e le attribution de un radice commun a cosas objective e subjective e lor influentia sur le homine e le natura.

In 1884 ille obteneva un doctorato a causa de un these sur Kant e se maritava con Alice Chipman, qui habeva un grandissime influentia sur Dewey in themas de education, que se reflecteva fortemente in studios collaborative que illes publicava.

Dewey esseva un homine de action qui aspirava al unification inter le theoria e le practica. Ille defendeva le equalitate del feminas, includente le derecto al voto. Ille anque fomentava le syndicalismo e animava le adjuta al intellectualistas exiliate ex regimes totalitari.

Ille habeva un grande influentia in le disveloppamento del progressismo pedagogic e esseva un pedagogo multo original e un del educatores le plus perspicace e genial de su epocha, con un influentia multo significante sur le philosophia e le practica pedagogic in le tres generationes de professores qui veniva post su travalio.

Dewey esseva un del fundatores principal del movimento philosophic american que se cognosce como pragmatismo, que mantene que le cognoscimentos human sempre es temporari e subjecte al exigentias del conditiones practic de actiones human (praxis).

Pro Dewey, nostre scholas debe esser un reconstruction in miniatura del ordine social, e le educator debe esser un guida e fonte de orientation pro su studentes. Ille insisteva que le education progressive debeva superar le tradition per accentuar lo que es practic sur lo que es solmente theoric.

Ultra isto, il non ha un methodo concrete de Dewey que pote applicar se al practica. Quando ille parla de methodos de education, ille lo face a nivello abstracte. Ille insenia que le praxis educative implica un gestion intelligente del affaires practic e que isto premitte un certe libertate a educatores in relation al problemas educative que illes confronta e le consequentias que pote esser derivate de cursos de action differente.

Le position methodologic de Dewey consiste de 5 phases:

(1) Consideration del experientias real del infante;

(2) Identification de un certe problema o difficultate suscitate a partir de iste experientias;

(3) Inspection de datos disponibile, assi como recerca sur solutiones viabile;

(4) Formulation de hypotheses pro resolver iste problemas; e

(5) Verification de iste hypotheses per le action.

Pro Dewey, il es plus importante que le education provide a studentes alique que facer que alique abstracte que apprender.

Le ideas pedagogic de Dewey es simile a illos del pedagogo brasilian Paulo Freire, qui esseva convencite que un schola non debe esser como un banca in le qual le professores insenia conceptos abstracte a lor studentes, le quales illes immagazina como moneta in un conto de sparnio de un banca e que illes debe regurgitar in examinationes e que postea illes oblida assatis rapidemente. Pro ille, lo que es importante es lo que lor studentes pote facer a causa del experientias que illes recipe durante lor annos de instruction.

John Dewey was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational theorist. He was born in the same year that Darwin published “The Origin of Species” and Marx his criticism of capitalism.

In 1882 he moved to Baltimore and enrolled in Johns Hopkins University. The Hegelian environment of the university had a strong influence on him that is reflected in three characteristics that influenced him very powerfully: a taste for logical schematization, an interest in social and psychological questions, and the attribution of a common root to objective and subjective things and their influence on man and nature.

In 1884 he received a doctorate because of a dissertation on Kant and got married to Alice Chipman, who had a very great influence on Dewey in the area of education, which is reflected strongly in collaborative studies that they published.

Dewey was a man of action who aspired to the unification between theory and practice. He defended the equality of women, including the right to vote. He also encouraged the development of trade unionism and helped out intellectuals exiled from totalitarian regimes.

He had a great influence on the development of educational progressivism and was a very original educational theorist and one of the most brilliant and insightful educators of his era, with a very significant influence on the philosophy and the practice of teaching in the three generations of teachers that came after he had finished his work.

Dewey was one of the principal founders of the American philosophical movement known as pragmatism, which maintains that human knowledge is temporary and subject to the demands of the practical conditions of human action (praxis).

For Dewey, our schools should be a reconstruction in miniature of the social order, and the educator should be a guide and source of orientation for his students. He insisted that progressive education should overcome tradition by emphasizing what is practical over what is merely theoretical.

Beyond this, Dewey came up with no concrete method that can be applied in practice. When he speaks of educational methods, he does so at an abstract level. He teaches that educational praxis implies an intelligent management of practical affairs and that this allows a certain liberty to educators in relation to the educational problems that they confront and the consequences that can be derived from different courses of action.

Dewey’s methodological position consists of five phases:

(1) Consideration of the real experiences of a child;

(2) The identification of a certain problem or difficulty derived from these experiences;

(3) A review of the available data, as well as research about viable solutions;

(4) The formation of hypotheses to resolve these problems; and

(5) Verification of these hypotheses through action.

For Dewey, it is more important for education to provide students with something to do than with something abstract to learn.

Dewey’s pedagogical ideas are similar to those of the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, who was convinced that a school should not be like a bank in which teachers convey abstract concepts to their students, who store them up as if they were money in a savings account at a bank and which they then have to regurgitate on examinations only to forget them rather rapidly later on. For him what is important is what their students can do because of the experiences they receive during their school years.

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